Apache Camel Tutorial


If you’d like to learn the Apache Camel framework, check out this free tutorial on this popular integration toolset for Java. This Apache Camel tutorial, designed for complete beginners, shows you how to use Maven and Eclipse to build your first ever Camel project.

What you’ll learn

By the end of this tutorial, you will learn how to:

  • Understand what Apache Camel is, and what it can do
  • Create a basic Apache Camel project using Maven
  • Import an Apache Camel project into Eclipse
  • See how Apache Camel can be used to automatically move files from one location to another
  • See how logging is used
  • Test your integration

This tutorial is suitable for you if:

  • You want to learn Apache Camel
  • You want to know how to create a Camel project
  • You’re just getting started with JBoss Fuse and want to know how to build Camel routes
  • You’re just getting started with Talend ESB and want to know the underlying concepts so that you can understand Mediation routes
  • You’re a Java developer and you want to level-up your skills with a powerful framework

You should have a little bit of Java experience, and be comfortable with using Eclipse.

What is Apache Camel?

So what is Apache Camel and what is it used for?

Apache Camel is a framework for Java that you can use to build integrations between different systems. It comes with components to support lots of different types of systems, from web services, to reading/writing files on disk.

You can think of Camel as a plumbing toolkit for Java. Just like real plumbing pipes, Camel takes data from one point, and pipes it to another. Along the way, the data can be changed, transformed, or sent through other pipes.

Included in your plumbing toolkit is a range of adaptors that fit all sorts of different apps and software systems. With a full range of tools at your disposal, it’s then up to you how you choose to build the plumbing.

Camel was largely inspired by the book Enterprise Integration Patterns, a sort of academic textbook for integrating software systems. The authors of the book (now considered a ‘classic’ in its sphere) took dozens of common use cases and distilled them into reusable patterns, describing their use and, in some cases, providing suggested code for how to implement them.The Camel developers thought it would be a great idea to build a Java framework that represented the ideals of the book. And so Apache Camel borrows heavily from the book.

Some things worth noting about Camel:


  • It’s built in Java – this might seem an obvious point to make, but once you understand this you’ll see that you have the full power of Java at your disposal
  • The source code is completely open – check it out at Github
  • It’s not just for web services – it’s a general integration framework. This means you might choose to use Camel to build something to do with web services, but you don’t have to.
  • It comes with a huge library of components – if you can think of a system you’d like to interact with, somebody has probably already written a component for it; everything from pushing files to an Amazon cloud, to sending a tweet.
  • It’s quite mature – Apache Camel has truly come of age and forms the foundation of some commercially-sold integration products, like Red Hat Fuse ESB and Talend ESB.

What is Camel used for?

Almost any time you need to move data from A to B, you can probably use Camel. Think of the following examples:

  • Picking up invoices from an FTP server and emailing them to you
  • Taking files from a folder and pushing them into Google Drive
  • Taking messages from a JMS queue and using them to invoke a web service
  • Making a web service that allows users to retrieve customer details from a database

These are just a few examples. With the wide range of components available in Camel, the sky’s the limit.

Thinking in Camel

The basic concept in Camel is the route.

Visualising a Camel route
Visualising a Camel route

Thinking in terms of our plumbing analogy, a route is like a pipe that moves data from one place to another. These places are called endpoints.

To allow Camel to connect to an endpoint, it comes with a library of components. A component is simply a type of plug that allows you to connect to an endpoint (such as a system, application, etc).

So Camel allows you to create routes that move data between endpoints, using components. This is done through Java code, more of which you’ll see later on.

Components are like off-the-shelf plugs that you can use in your routes. Any time you need to move data to or from an application, you’ll probably find that a component has already been written to do the job for you.

This means you don’t need to waste time writing your own code to read a file, or invoke a web service.

The beauty is that these components are reusable, and you can even contribute your own.

In between endpoints, the data can also be transformed or modified, either by passing the data through another endpoint, or by using a processor.

Working with messages in Camel

Camel works with data using a message model.

What does this mean? It means that Camel doesn’t treat data like a stream, like water flowing through a pipe.

Instead, it receives data as individual messages – like packages flowing through a post office.

Each message is treated as an individual unit. A message could be huge, or it could be very small. Each message is wrapped into a standard Camel object called a Message. A Message has Headers, which can be used to hold values associated with the message, and a Body, where the main message data itself lies.

That Message object is then passed along the route.

The important thing to understand in Camel’s message model is that the Body can contain almost any kind of Java object – it doesn’t have to be XML, or even plain text for that matter. You can just as easily route a binary file, or even something more complicated.

You will learn more about Camel’s message model as you move through the tutorial.

Getting ready for the tutorial

For this tutorial, you will need:

  • Eclipse, installed on your machine
  • Apache Maven
  • that’s it!

Note for Mac users: If you’re using a Mac, I recommend using the Homebrew package manager to help you install Maven. Follow the instructions at http://brew.sh to install. Then, once Homebrew is installed, install Maven by typing brew install maven from a Terminal window.

To check Maven is installed correctly, you can run mvn -version in a Terminal or Command Prompt window.

Note: You may be aware of a Maven plugin for Eclipse called m2e which helps you graphically create Maven projects. However, I find using Maven at the command line much more straightforward! 🙂

Creating the Maven project and importing into Eclipse

First you’ll create the Maven project that will hold your Apache Camel code. Maven is a build tool for Java based projects. It can be used to create new projects, automatically manage dependencies, build, compile and deploy code, and much more. Many projects adopt Maven as a standard.

Maven is immensely useful when working with Camel because it can create a new Camel project from a template (known as an “archetype”), with some boilerplate code to get you up and running. Maven can also turn this code into a project that can be managed in Eclipse.

Creating the Camel maven project

The first step is to create the new project, from the Maven command line. Follow these steps to create your example Camel Maven project:

  1. Ensure Maven is installed and on your path.

  2. Open a Command Prompt (Windows), or Terminal (Mac)

  3. Enter the following command:

    mvn archetype:generate -DarchetypeGroupId=org.apache.camel.archetypes -DarchetypeArtifactId=camel-archetype-java

    This tells Maven to generate a project using the archetype camel-archetype-java, which creates a basic Camel Java project

  4. When prompted, enter the following:
    • groupId: org.example
    • artifactId: MyCamelProject
    • version: (press Enter to accept 1.0-SNAPSHOT)
    • package: (press Enter)
  5. When you’re returned to the command line, type cd MyCamelProject

  6. Type the following to convert the project into an Eclipse project: mvn eclipse:eclipse

Output from Maven (it’s very verbose!):

bubbs:integration tdonohue$ mvn archetype:generate -DarchetypeGroupId=org.apache.camel.archetypes -DarchetypeArtifactId=camel-archetype-java
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building Maven Stub Project (No POM) 1
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] >>> maven-archetype-plugin:2.4:generate (default-cli) > generate-sources @ standalone-pom >>>
[INFO] <<< maven-archetype-plugin:2.4:generate (default-cli) < generate-sources @ standalone-pom <<<
[INFO] --- maven-archetype-plugin:2.4:generate (default-cli) @ standalone-pom ---
[INFO] Generating project in Interactive mode
[INFO] Archetype [org.apache.camel.archetypes:camel-archetype-java:2.16.1] found in catalog remote
Define value for property 'groupId': : org.example
Define value for property 'artifactId': : MyCamelProject
Define value for property 'version':  1.0-SNAPSHOT: : 
Define value for property 'package':  org.example: : 
[INFO] Using property: camel-version = 2.16.1
[INFO] Using property: exec-maven-plugin-version = 1.2.1
[INFO] Using property: log4j-version = 1.2.17
[INFO] Using property: maven-compiler-plugin-version = 3.3
[INFO] Using property: maven-resources-plugin-version = 2.6
[INFO] Using property: slf4j-version = 1.7.12
Confirm properties configuration:
groupId: org.example
artifactId: MyCamelProject
version: 1.0-SNAPSHOT
package: org.example
camel-version: 2.16.1
exec-maven-plugin-version: 1.2.1
log4j-version: 1.2.17
maven-compiler-plugin-version: 3.3c
maven-resources-plugin-version: 2.6
slf4j-version: 1.7.12

Importing the project into Eclipse

Now we can import the project into Eclipse:

  1. Open Eclipse

  2. Choose FileImport

  3. On the Import dialog box, select GeneralExisting Projects into Workspace. Click Next.

  4. Use the Browse button by Select root directory to find your project root directory. Select your project and then click Finish to import.

    Importing the Camel Maven project into Eclipse

Now your Camel project is in Eclipse. Shortly we’ll run the route. But first let’s take a look at the structure of a typical Camel project.

Typical Camel project structure

A Camel project created from an archetype will look like this:

Camel project structure

The main code resides in MyRouteBuilder.java. In Camel-speak, this is a RouteBuilder class, and this is where your plumbing configuration resides.

A RouteBuilder is where your plumbing instructions go. A RouteBuilder class contains route definitions, which describe each pipe that you want Camel to build.

Each pipe, or route, starts with from(url) where url expresses the endpoint where the data is coming from. A route may consist of multiple steps, such as transforming the data or logging it. But a route will usually end with a to() instruction, which expresses where the data will be delivered to.

A really simple route could look something like this:


This would move all incoming files in the customers/new folder, to the customers/old folder.

You’ll see that the included MyRouteBuilder comes with a route already defined. This means that a route has already been configured.

A route is “always-on” – that is to say, once the route is started, it continues to listen for and process messages, until it is shut down.

For convenience, the Maven archetype also includes another Java class, MainApp, which can be used to run your route from with Eclipse. It uses the standard Java main() method to initialise MyRouteBuilder and create the routes.

This is useful for testing, as you’ll see below.

Understanding the demo project

The demo project includes some code that builds a simple Camel route. This section describes what the demo route does.

The demo project defines a route using the code below. The code is given in a special Camel syntax, or DSL (Domain-specific Language):

    .when(xpath("/person/city = 'London'"))
      .log("UK message")
      .log("Other message")

This code defines a route that picks up files from the src/data folder, checks to see whether the message XML element <person><city>...</city></person> has the value London, and then routes the message to a target/messages/uk folder if so, or otherwise to the folder target/messages/others.

Let’s look at each part of this statement in detail:

  • The from() method starts the route. The part in brackets defines the URI of the endpoint. In this case, the endpoint is a file: component, and the following part defines the folder to consume from, src/data.
  • The choice() method states that the message is about to be routed, according to a condition.
  • The when() method checks whether the city element in the XML message equals the string "London". If so, it writes a log message, "UK message", and then moves the file to the target/messages/uk folder.
  • The otherwise() method defines what should happen if the previous test fails. If so, it writes a log message, "Other message", and moves the file to the target/messages/others folder.

You’ll see that although it’s been formatted for easier reading, the entire route is a single Java statement – it starts with the method call from(), and ends with a to() method call and the statement terminator, ;.

To get you started, the demo route provides a couple of demo files in the folder src/data. The two files are message1.xml and message2.xml.

When the route runs, these two files will be picked up by Camel, inspected to see whether they are London files, and routed accordingly.

Now let’s run the route and see what happens.

Running the demo route

To run the route:

  1. In the project tree, find org.exampleMainApp.java.
  2. Right-click the file and select Run AsJava Application.
  3. If you’re prompted by a Select Java Application dialog box, tell Eclipse to run the app as a Camel route by selecting Main – org.apache.camel from the list.
  4. Camel will launch, process the files, and you’ll see the output from the route in the Console window.

Camel output in the Eclipse console

So what just happened?

The first file, message1.xml, had a city value of London, so it was routed to the uk folder and a log message of UK message was written to the console.

The second file, message2.xml, had a city value of Tampa, so it was moved to the others folder, and a log message of Other message was written.

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